By Marotti F.
The Langmuir approach is among the most typical equipment for getting ready twodimensionalmolecular assemblies. during this process, an answer of an amphiphilic compound in a low-boiling solvent, frequently immiscible with water, is unfold on a water subphase. After the solvent has evaporated, the amphiphilic molecules shape a monolayer within which their hydrophilic heads have interaction with the water subphase and the hydrophobic tails are directed clear of it. Compression of the monolayer at the water subphase ends up in a discount of the realm on hand in step with molecule (A), therefore inflicting a rise in floor strain (!). The ensuing π-A isotherm (surface strain as a functionality of the molecular region at consistent temperature) offers info at the molecular packing in the monolayer, the orientation of the headgroups, the molecular quarter requirement, and attainable interactions with molecules or ions dissolved within the aqueous subphase. The monolayer shaped on the air-water interface will be transferred onto a superb help (Langmuir-Blodgett deposition). as a result ease in assembling amphiphiles right into a number of skinny movies with outlined composition, constitution, and thickness, the Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) innovations have allowed the advance of novel useful fabrics through many scientists.
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Extra info for Cavitand-, Fullerene-, and Porphyrin Porphyrincontaining Mechanically and Optically Active Monolayers
Since the electrode potential is more negative than the redox potential of the ferrocene moiety, the photoexcited electron of the porphyrin was transferred to the electron acceptor, the methyl viologen dication (MV2+) which was reduced to the radical cation MV+•. 12). The reverse electron transfer from the excited porphyrin to the gold electrode was prevented because of the large distance between the two moieties . 12 b) a) SAM containing a photoactive (S), an electron relay (R), and an electrolyte solution containing an electron acceptor (A).
The reversibility of the above-described metal–directed self–assembly can be exploited to reversibly encapsulate guests in the surface-confined cages. Also, the formation of hetero“dimeric” cages from cavitands with different substituents at the lower rim and cavities of different molecular dimensions in the upper part allows for new applications in the preparation of nanoscale electronic devices. Cavitands with cavities of various sizes can be used as chemical sensors. Schematically, a chemical sensor consists of both a sensing 6 Chapter 1 material, interacting with the species present in the environment, and a transducer which converts the chemical informations into measurable data .
1 The History of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett Films Historically the study of monomolecular films began in the eighteenth century with an astute observation of Benjamin Franklin, an American politician, during his visit to England  where he carried out simple experiments spreading a small quantity of oil on a pond in Clapham . Later on, Rayleigh estimated that the films of oil were between 10 and 20 Å thick, very close to the thickness of monomolecular film of fatty acids. 15 Part of Benjamin Franklin’s original paper .