Download Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogenases, Relevant by K. Fisher, W. E. Newton (auth.), Barry E. Smith, Raymond L. PDF

By K. Fisher, W. E. Newton (auth.), Barry E. Smith, Raymond L. Richards, William E. Newton (eds.)

Biological nitrogen fixation offers greater than 50% of the full annual enter of the basic aspect nitrogen to international agriculture. hence, it's of big agronomic significance and significant to meals provides, fairly in constructing nations.

This publication, with chapters authored by means of the world over well known specialists, offers a finished and designated account of the attention-grabbing historical past of the method - together with the striking discoveries of molybdenum-independent nitrogenases and superoxide-dependent nitrogenase; a evaluation of Man's makes an attempt to emulate the organic technique - so much effectively with the commercially dominant Haber-Bosch technique; and the present nation of the knowledge paintings with admire to the enzymes - referred to as nitrogenases - chargeable for organic nitrogen fixation.

The preliminary chapters use a historic method of the organic and business approaches, by means of an outline of assay methodologies. the following set of chapters specializes in the classical enzyme, the molybdenum nitrogenase, and info its biosynthesis, constitution, composition, and mechanism of motion in addition to detailing either how versions of its part proteins are built by way of recombinant DNA know-how and the way computational strategies are being utilized. the delicate chemical modelling of the metal-containing clusters within the enzyme is reviewed subsequent, via an outline of the 2 molybdenum-independent nitrogenases - first, the vanadium-containing enzyme after which the iron-only nitrogenase - including a few techniques as to why they exist! Then follows an updated remedy of the basically "non-classical" homes of the superoxide-dependent nitrogenase, which extra heavily resembles molybdenum-containing hydroxylases and comparable enzymes, like nitrate reductase, that it does the opposite nitrogenases. each one bankruptcy includes an in depth record of references.

This publication is the self-contained first quantity of a finished seven-volume sequence. No different on hand paintings presents the up to date and in-depth assurance of this sequence and this quantity. This ebook is meant to function an integral reference paintings for all scientists operating during this sector, together with agriculture and the heavily similar metals-in-biology quarter; to aid scholars to go into this not easy quarter of analysis; and to supply technology directors easy accessibility to important suitable info.

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Additional info for Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogenases, Relevant Chemical Models and Commercial Processes

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One alternative method (Hartleb, 1901) involved exposing seeds, after washing them with water, to the microorganisms removed from the nodules, the so-called bacteroids. The water caused the seeds to swell, so loosening the seed coat, and providing a greater surface area for attachment of the microorganisms. Another alternative (Simon, 1907) was based on the proposal that bacteria cannot achieve maximum activity in synthetic media but are most active when cultivated in sterilized field soil with the addition of lime.

Ztscher. Ver. Dt. ZuckInd. , and Stackebrandt, E. (1985). Concurrent evolution of nitrogenase genes and 16S rRNA in Rhizobium species and other nitrogenfixing bacteria. Arch. , 142, 342-348. Hoch, G. , Little, H. , and Burris, R. H. (1957). Hydrogen evolution from soybean root nodules. Nature, 179, 430-431. Holm-Hansen, O, Gerloff, G. , and Skoog, F. (1954). Cobalt as an essential element for blue-green algae. , 7, 665-667. Hoogerheide, J. , and Kocholaty, W. (1938). Metabolism of the strict anaerobes (genus: Clostridium): II.

1930). Molybdän als katalysator bei der biologischen stickstoff-bindung. Arch. , 1, 333-342. Bortels, H. (1936). Weitere untersuchungen über die bedeutung von molybdän, vanadium, wolfram, und andere erdaschenstoffen für stickstoffbindende und andere mikroörganismen Zentbl. Bakteriol. , Abt. II, 95, 193-218. Bøckman, O. C. (1997). Fertilizers and biological nitrogen fixation as sources of plant nutrients: Perspectives for future agriculture. Plant and Soil, 194, 11-14. Bredemann, G. (1912). Untersuchengen über das bakterien-impfpräparat “Heyls Concentrated Nitrogen Producer”.

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