By Richard D. Nathan
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Additional resources for Cardiac Muscle: the Regulation of Excitation and Contraction
Farmer, Β. , Williams, E. , and Watanabe, A. M. (1983). Isolation of calcium tolerant myoctyes from adult rat hearts: Review of the literature and description of a method. LifeSci. 3 3 , 1-18. Frank, J. , Rich, T. , and Fireman, M. (1982). Calcium depletion in rabbit myocardium. Ultrastructure of the sarcolemma and correlation with the calcium paradox. Circ. Res. 5 1 , 117-130. , and Yamaguchi, K. (1981). Breakdown of cytoskeletal filaments selectively reduces Na and Ca spikes in cultured mammalian neurons.
Proc. 40, 2 6 1 8 - 2 6 2 4 . , and Shibata, E. F. (1985). Voltage clamp of isolated cardiac pacemaker cells from bullfrog sinus venosus: A quantitative analysis of potassium currents. J. Physiol (London) 368, 265-292. , and van Ginneken, A. (1985). A transient outward current in isolated cells from the crista terminalis of rabbit heart. J. Physiol. (London). 368, 2 4 3 - 2 6 4 . , and van Ginneken, A. (1986). Voltage clamp analysis of the f-current in isolated cells from the rabbit sinoatrial node: Its role in pacemaking.
Frequency-Dependent Block Thorough voltage-clamp investigations of the mechanisms of action of organic Ca-channel blockers have revealed that block of Ca current by all three classes of these compounds is strongly modulated by membrane potential. This phe nomenon is responsible for their frequency (use) -dependent block of contractile activity and Ca current in cardiac tissue. In all cases, inhibition of Ca current is facilitated by depolarization, caused by either increasing the frequency of stim ulation or, in the case of voltage-clamp studies, holding the membrane potential at depolarized levels.