Download Biomineralization by Patricia M. Dove, James J. De Yoreo, Steve Weiner PDF

By Patricia M. Dove, James J. De Yoreo, Steve Weiner

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The ribosome, consisting of a small and large subunit, assembles onto the mRNA near its 5ƍ end with the help of proteins called initiation factors. Two sites within the ribosome—“A” and “P”—are available for tRNAs to come and bind to two contiguous codons on the mRNA. In all eukaryotic mRNAs, the first codon at the 5ƍ end of mRNA codes for methionine (AUG). This is called the initiation codon. Hence, tRNA-Met will come into site “P” and use its anticodon region to form base pairs with the Met initiation codon on mRNA, and this process is called initiation.

4). This cycle is repeated over and over as each individual amino acid complex is added to the growing protein chain, proceeding from the N-terminus of the sequence. Once the last amino acid of the sequence is added, the next codon on mRNA, called the stop codon, is exposed. This codon, which takes the form of −UGA−, −UAA− or −UAG−, does not code for any amino acid. Rather, proteins called releasing factors recognize this stop codon and cause the release of the entire hybiopro polypeptide chain from the last tRNA and the ribosomal complex.

The RNA polymerase/transcription factor complex terminates the transcription of the hnRNA once it reaches a specific DNA region downstream of the hybiopro gene (Fig. 3). This termination region or stop signal causes the RNA polymerase to come off the template ssDNA strand. Simultaneously, the hnRNA strand dissociates from the DNA template strand and the ssDNA refolds back into a doublestrand again. Once the hnRNA has dissociated from the DNA template strand, specific endonucleases cleave the 3ƍ end, and a poly(A) polymerase adds a polyadenylate “tail” to the 3ƍ end of the hnRNA.

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