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By M. W. Hardisty

The proliferation of clinical texts and their quickly escalating bills calls for of an writer a few justification for the creation of another specialized quantity; really one who treats of a comparatively imprecise workforce of animal- the Cyclostomes-whose importance is little liked open air the circle biologists. but, in the zoological literature this crew of vertebrates has continuously commanded a level of awareness, really dispropor tionate to the relatively small numbers of species concerned or their fiscal significance. This particular curiosity stems broadly speaking from their distinct phylogenetic prestige. Asjawless vertebrates the hagfish and the lamprey are considered as the only survivors of a as soon as flourishing staff of Palaeozoic vertebrates-the Agnathans-amongst that are numbered the 1st verte brates to seem within the fossil list. due to this courting to the fossil agnathans it used to be inevitable that earlier dialogue of the phylogenetic signifi cance of the cyclostomes must have been ruled by way of comparative anatomists and palaeontologists, even supposing lately their precise evolutionary place has more and more attracted the curiosity of comparative physiologists and scholars of molecular evolution. in the final fifteen years either the hagfish and the lamprey were the topic of separate courses describing intimately many features in their morphology, body structure and lifestyles cycles (Brodal, A. and Fiinge, R., The Biology ofMyxine, 1963; Hardisty, M. W. and Potter, I. C., The Biology of Lampreys, 1971-72.

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M. Metamorphosis. the life cycle would have obvious selective advantages under conditions which made the feeding migration difficult or impossible, or where the supply of suitable host fishes was insufficient to permit the full realisation of the growth potential and fecundity of the adult lamprey. 1 Lampreys A recent review oflamprey taxonomy (Hubbs and Potter, 1971) has placed the greatest emphasis at the generic level on the character of the dentition. The resulting scheme differs in only minor respects from that adopted by Vladykov and Kott (l976a).

This is a membranous, not a muscular structure, conical in shape and bearing at its apex the primary nasohypophysial opening. This, like its counterpart in the cephalaspid, has a similar keyhole shape with an anterior hypophysial and posterior nasal aperture. Its function is assumed to be sensory, detecting foreign particles entering the tract which can then be expelled by sudden contractions of the dilated nasohypophysial sac. The backward extension of the nasohypophysial tract in the adult lamprey reaches the dorsal roof of the anterior gill sacs.

FAMILY Species PETROMYZONIDAE Lampetra ( Entosphenus) tridentata *L. Subgenus Species ( Entosphenus) minima (extinct) *L. ( Entosphenus) folletti L. ( Entosphenus) lethophaga L. ( Entosphenus) hubbsi Lethenteron L. ( Lethenteron) japonica Biological type Area of distribution Anadromous, parasitic Also dwarf landlocked forms Dwarf parasitic landlocked form Alaska to California and Japan British Columbia, California Non-parasitic California Non-parasitic N. E. California and Oregon Non-parasitic South Central California Anadromous, parasitic White Sea to N.

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