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By R. H. Groves, F. Di Castri

The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia proportion a Mediterranean weather characterised via cool, rainy winters and sizzling, dry summers. those 5 areas have differing styles of human cost, yet similarities in common crops and a few faunal assemblages. those likenesses are more suitable with time by way of an expanding point of biotic trade one of the areas. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on difficulties of the Environment), which learned that the integrity of many common ecosystems is being threatened via the ingress of invasive species, this ebook uniquely records the brought floras and faunas, particularly vegetation, buds, and mammals, in those 5 areas of Mediterranean weather, and goals to extend our figuring out of the ecology of organic invasions. In doing so, it issues the way to extra successfully deal with the biota of those areas.

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These plants were pre-adapted to disturbance in both natural upland pastures and in cultivated fields. Some of these plants, such as the grasses and legumes, became valuable pasture plants (Naveh, 1967). The agricultural and pastoral landscapes resemble in many aspects the shifting mosaic of landscape, described by Forman & Godron (1986) for systems exhibiting a pattern of long-term change (in this case, changes in land-use patterns during historic times) along with short-term, internal spatial conversion (in this case, climatic fluctuations and cultural rotational cycles).

The total result of all these biotic changes has been the creation of a mosaic of human-modified landscapes all over the Mediterranean Basin. Some 'commensal' species spread extensively within the Mediterranean Basin and are still spreading. Some of these species became prime candidates to invade other regions of mediterranean climate when Europeans arrived and settled and tried to grow crops and graze animals (Groves, 1986). Currently, plants from some of these other regions are invading Mediterranean landscapes (see Guillerm, this volume).

Amsterdam: Elsevier. di Castri, F. (1989a). History of biological invasions with special emphasis on the Old World. In Biological Invasions. A Global Perspective, ed. J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek & M. Williamson, pp. 1-30. Chichester: Wiley. di Castri, F. ). The evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. In Ecological Assessment of Environmental Degradation, Pollution and Recovery, ed. O. Ravera, pp. 1-30. Amsterdam: Elsevier. di Castri, F. (1990). On invading species and invaded ecosystems: a play of historical chance and biological necessity.

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