By David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,
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Extra info for Bioenergetics 3
A23187 catalyses the electroneutral exchange of Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ for two H + without disturbing monovalent ion gradients. Ionomycin has a higher selectivity for Ca 2+ and has the additional advantage that it is non-fluorescent, allowing its use in experiments using fluorescent indicators. g. FCCP (Fig. 2). This is possible because these ionophores possess extensive 7r-orbital systems, which so delocalize the charge of the anionic form that lipid solubility is retained. By cycling across the membrane they can catalyse the net electrical uniport of protons and increase the proton conductance of the membrane.
3RTlogloK (note that the term log10 Kis dimensionless because the units of K are cancelled by those ofF), Equation 317 is frequently misunderstood. It is important to appreciate that zXG~ is simply related to the logarithm of the equilibrium constant and as such gives in itself no information whatsoever concerning the Gibbs energy of the reaction in the ceil. It is therefore absolutely incorrect to use AG ~ values to predict whether a reaction can occur spontaneously or to estimate the Gibbs energy available ffoma r e a c t i o n .
To make them dimensionless, and then rearrange the equation, we get: .... 9 is the most common form of the Gibbs energy equation and the one found in most textbooks. 7 at equilibrium when AG = 0 and, of course, F = K. 5 is more intuitive, since it emphasizes the fact that AG is a function of the extent to which a reaction is removed from equilibrium. 3RTlogl0F are dimensionally homogeneous terms or why apparent equilibrium constants and apparent mass action ratios (see below) can be used that make simplifying assumptions about the states of ionization of reactants and products, the pH, etc.