By Tony Hadland & Hans-Erhard Lessing & Nick Clayton & Gary W. Sanderson
The bicycle ranks as essentially the most enduring, most generally used automobiles on the planet, with greater than 1000000000 produced in the course of virtually 2 hundred years of biking historical past. This e-book bargains an authoritative and finished account of the bicycle's technical and ancient evolution, from the earliest velocipedes (invented to fill the necessity for horseless delivery in the course of a scarcity of oats) to sleek racing motorcycles, mountain motorcycles, and recumbents. It strains the bicycle's improvement by way of fabrics, ergonomics, and car physics, as performed through inventors, marketers, and manufacturers.
Written by means of top bicycle historians and generously illustrated with ancient drawings, designs, and images, Bicycle Design describes the major phases within the evolution of the bicycle, starting with the counterintuitive proposal of balancing on wheels in line, throughout the improvement of tension-spoked wheels, oblique drives (employing levers, pulleys, chains, and chainwheels), and pneumatic tires. The authors learn the extra improvement of the bicycle for such particular reasons as racing, portability, and all-terrain use; they usually describe the evolution of bicycle parts together with seats, transmission, brakes, lighting (at first candle-based), and providers (racks, panniers, saddlebags, baby seats, and sidecars). they give thought to not just commercially winning designs but additionally advertisement disasters that pointed the best way to destiny technological advancements. And they debunk a few myths approximately bicycles -- for instance, the fallacious yet often-cited concept that Leonardo sketched a chain-drive motorbike in his notebooks. regardless of the bicycle's lengthy background and mass charm, its technological heritage has been overlooked. This quantity, with its attractive and wide-ranging insurance, fills that hole. it is going to be the place to begin for all destiny histories of the bicycle.
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Extra info for Bicycle design : an illustrated history
Below left: a 1868 velocipede/draisine patent drawing showing toe rest and starter wheels. Below right: a 1864 entry in Jules Olivier’s notebook showing a fork and a toe rest. ) F ront D rive 45 At the London International Exhibition of 1862, the catalog of the London exhibitors J. La Roche & J. Mehew included an entry reading “Velocipede: all the iron-work of tubular iron,” which could have meant anything from a draisine-like two-wheeler to a lever-driven quadricycle. Two decades later this was characterized in a journal as follows: “a distinct improvement on all its predecessors, inasmuch as it had the germ of the true principle—a rotating axle, worked by crank action.
From period newspapers we know of a wood turner in Beaune, named Lagrange (Kobayashi 1993, 59), who may have been the supplier of the velocipede owned by the inventor Nicéphore Nièpce in nearby Chalon-sur-Saône. The museum there holds Nièpce’s machine, some of whose parts are made of turned parts. That machine has bores in the beam to which Nièpce intended to attach mechanical legs for propulsion, as we know from letters to his brother. In October of 1818, Drais himself rode the 300 miles to Paris via Nancy, where he gave a demonstration of the draisine.
The feet pushed these down in unison. Thanks to a ratchet, the rider could bring the stirrups up while pressing the saddle down, thereby operating another crank (French patent 7,243 of 1837). No contemporary report on these tricycles is known. The earliest evidence of a two-wheeled velocipede with pedal cranks on the front axle is found in the April 6, 1866 edition of Le Journal de l’Ain, a newspaper published in Bourg-enBresse (Salmon 2012). Le vélocipède bicycle (soon to be nicknamed the boneshaker) might today be seen as leading down the wrong road of front-wheel propulsion.