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  • ''This unique and precious ebook can help to expand the certainty of avian ecology through the world.''
    ?-D. Flaspohler, Michigan Technical college, in selection (January 2002)

    ''This is a stimulating publication and a wealthy resource of study principles written at a degree appropriate for undergraduates...''
    ?-Jeremy Lindsell in IBIS (2001)

    '' articulate easy evaluation of what presently is shaping the sector of avian behavioral ecology within the tropics. ...The authors are to be recommended for bringing jointly a knowledge base that i am hoping will motivate ornithologists so as to add to its destiny expansion.''
    ?John Kricher for THE WILSON BULLETIN (September 2001)

    ''The imperative power of this booklet is the authors' breadth of expertise, which supplies credibility to their claims. ...I suggest Behavioral Ecology of Tropical Birds to budding behavioral ecologists who're at the prowl for examine issues which may adjust the instructions of the sphere, and to ecologists within the temperate area who ask yourself why their colleagues visit the hassle and rate of mounting behavioral study initiatives within the tropics.''
    ?-Tom A. Langen, Clarkson college, in ECOLOGY (November 2001)

    '' articulate easy assessment of what presently is shaping the sphere of avia behavioral ecology within the tropics. ...The authos are to be recommended for bringing jointly a knowledge base that i am hoping will encourage ornithologists so as to add to its destiny expansion.''
    ?John Kricher for THE WILSON BULLETIN (September 2001)

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Sample text

Mating systems can be viewed as a continuum of male parental effort, ranging from monogamous species where males care for the young, to polygynous species where males defend territories but care is minimal or non-existent, to lekking species where females associate with males only for copulations. Pioneering work by Crook (1964) on weaverbirds (Ploceinae), an Old World tropical group, first established a link between diet and mating system. Insectivorous forest weaverbirds are usually monogamous, whereas gramnivorous savannah weaverbirds are usually polygynous.

First, clutch sizes are the same for closely related species with very divergent habitats and feeding ecology. As Skutch (1985) notes, neotropical flycatchers are an ecologically diverse group yet most species have an average clutch size of two eggs. Third, nocturnal species also show an increase in clutch size with latitude even though night length (and foraging time) decrease with latitude. Any general hypothesis for clutch size in the tropics must account for these patterns. Skutch (1949) suggested that nest predation, not food limitation, was the main cost of having large broods.

Thus lower density could be a factor in the lower extra-pair behavior of tropical birds, but only if density plays a big role in the costs and benefits of seeking extra-pair copulations. In a broad comparative analysis of birds, Westneat and Sherman (1997) found no correlation between EPF frequency and density. Studies within species often find no relationship between nearest neighbor distance and the occurrence of extra-pair young in the nest (Tarof et al. 1998). In some species there is a density effect, but the effect is not due to density per se.

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