By Hyman M. Schipper
256 pages, sixty seven figures, 6 tables, hardcover This monograph is the 1st of its variety to concentration in particular at the function of astroglia in aging-related human neurodegenerative problems and experimental types of CNS senescence and degeneration. As such, this quantity within the Neuroscience Intelligence Unit sequence represents a singular and critical contribution to the elemental and scientific neuroscience literature. The chapters are grouped into 3 sections: I. Biology of Astrocytes. The chapters during this part will represent a accomplished dialogue of the recognized capabilities of astroglia within the mammalian CNS and the jobs those cells may well play within the pathophysiology of neurological issues. II. Astrocytes in Human mind Senescence and Neurodegenerative problems. during this part, the pathology of astrocytes and their putative roles in human CNS senescence and numerous neurodegenerative stipulations are lined in substantial aspect. III. Experimental types of Astrocyte Senescence: Implications for Neurodegenerative ! illness. during this ultimate part, experimental ways to the delineation of the position of astroglia in mind getting older and degeneration are defined. This booklet may still allure broadly to easy neuroscientists attracted to a number of features of the biology of those cells in addition to to clinically-oriented investigators taken with the pathogenesis of the foremost human neurodegenerative problems.
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Extra info for Astrocytes in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration
4. Fedoroff S, Vernadakis A. Astrocytes—Development, Morphology, and Regional Specialization of Astrocytes, Volumes 1-3. Orlando: Academic Press, 1986. 5. Kettenmann H, Ransom BR, eds. Neuroglia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 6. Dahl D, Bjorklund H, Bignami A. Immunological markers in astrocytes. In: Fedoroff S, Vernadakis A, eds. Astrocytes: Cell Biology and Pathology of Astrocytes. Orlando: Academic Press, 1986:1-25. 7. Kimelberg HK, Norenberg MD. Astrocytic responses to central nervous system trauma.
This enzyme forms the basis of Functions of Astrocytes 27 a pump that simultaneously transports Na+ out of the endothelium into the brain, and K+ out of the brain into the endothelial cell. Like glycine, K+ has a potent effect on the transmission of nerve impulses and neuron firing, and this asymmetric distribution functions to maintain low K+ concentrations in the extracellular fluid. Astrocytes and BBB-Induction In the mammalian CNS, brain capillaries develop from solid cords of endothelial cells.
61 This was perhaps the first example of compartmentation of metabolic functions between neurons and glia. 62,63 Such compartmentation has profound implications for brain chemistry. It is not clear whether the uptake of glutamate, seen in both cultured and acutely isolated astrocytes and by autoradiography and immunocytochemistry on astrocytes in situ,64,65 influences synaptic transmission. Uptake of the EAAs is likely to be slower than needed to alter synaptic transmission and therefore is more likely to serve for long term control.