By P. Müller
Zoogeography goals to give an explanation for the constitution, functionality and background of the geo graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old factors. it truly is hence a mistake to believe that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own supply a distinct photograph of the way its diversity originated. A in simple terms ecological interpretation of the diversity might be both deceptive if it didn't have in mind the population-genetic constitution underlying the geographical diversity. Phylogenetic systematics, inhabitants genetics, autecology and synecology have all their very own tools, none of which are substituted for an additional, with no which a spread can't be studied or interpreted. the current e-book covers purely convinced facets of the broad box of zoogeo graphy. those are within the shape within which they have been crystallised during innumerable discussions with my lecturers, my colleagues at domestic and in a foreign country and my fellow employees, postgraduates and scholars at Saarbriicken, in addition to within the zoogeographical a part of may well uncomplicated lectures on biogeography for the yr 1973-1974. the manager emphasis is laid at the genetic and ecological macro constitution of the biosphere as an enviornment for variety buildings and diversity dynamics, on city ecosystems, that have hitherto been grossly ignored, and at the most up-to-date heritage of levels (the dispersal centre concept). The marine and fresh-water biocycles, nonetheless, were dealt purely briefly.
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Extra info for Aspects of Zoogeography
For groups with strong powers of dispersal, like mammals and birds, the peculiarities of the Central American region tend to be unimportant. Such groups have been worked on by SIMPSON (1940, 1950, 1965, 1966), MAYR (1964) and HOWELL (1969). For other groups, however, such as chilopods, diplopods amphibia, reptiles and gastropods, the singularities of the Central American region are very marked indeed (MULLER 1973). Whatever views the different workers have come to concerning the placing of Central America, they all agree that in the lowland rain forest of that area the proportion of species of South American origin is astonishingly high.
About 2450 years ago a strong arid phase began; Lake Bodele dried up and the level of Lake Chad fell sharply. It was at this time that the Sahara first reached its present condition. The present-day period is characterised by dunes formed during this dry phase and is known as the Lake Chad stage (MESSERLI 1972, MOREAU 1966). In its present form Lake Chad is to be seen as the modest remnant of the various Quaternary lakes that preceded it. The true desert fauna of Africa consists of numerous species which also occur in the Indian dry areas.
Many families of crustaceans that were already present in the early Tertiary, and also Plecoptera and Chironomids, justify placing these transitional areas in the Archinotic Realm. This latter was already demanded by biogeographers of the last century both as a zoogeographical realm and as a land bridge. Its existence has been confirmed by many wellbased zoogeographical examples worked out by zoogeographers of the present century. Groups of younger and older immigrants occur in the various realms as though superimposed on each other.