Download Arctic and Alpine Biomes (Greenwood Guides to Biomes of the by Joyce A. Quinn PDF

By Joyce A. Quinn

This quantity within the Greenwood publications to Biomes of the realm: sequence covers the biomes at excessive altitudes and close to the poles, together with the arctic tundra biomes, the Mid-Latitude Alpine Tundra Biome (found within the mountain levels of North the USA, Asia, and South America), and the tropical alpine tundra biome (for instance, Hawaii).

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Extra resources for Arctic and Alpine Biomes (Greenwood Guides to Biomes of the World)

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Graminoids and rosettes can activate belowground growing points if damage is not extensive. Alpine plants are also subject to heat stress. Heat-trapping structures can be detrimental during peak solar radiation, causing ground and plant temperatures to soar. Establishment of seedlings where high surface temperatures prevail is difficult at best and is another indication of why vegetative propagation is more common. Patches of bare soil are frequent in alpine regions, and seedlings are commonly found in disturbed sites, such as animal burrow entrances and tire tracks.

Stems of birch and willow may be 200–400 years old, and dwarf birches rising only a foot high may be hundreds of years old. Other plants may have equally long life spans: northern woodrush, 90–130 years; avens, 80–120 years; and cottongrass, 120–190 years. While the most common method of reproduction is vegetative rather than by seed, most arctic-alpine plants reproduce both ways. Flowering and seed production, however, may not be successful every year. Most plants are insect pollinated, but wind and birds are also factors.

Minimally developed spodosols (podzols) exist on well-drained soils with a deep active layer dominated by dwarf-shrub heath and dwarf birch. Inceptisols (Arctic brown soils) occur on uplands and dry ridges where cushions and heath shrubs grow. Other inceptisols (tundra soils), where the dominant process is Arctic and Antarctic Tundra gleization, are common where drainage is impeded. They support cottongrass, tussock grasses, dwarf-shrub heath, and some sedges. Histosols (bog and half-bog soils), which also develop through gleization, occur along shores of lakes and ponds where drainage is better and peat accumulates from sedges and mosses.

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