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Extra resources for Applied Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (Practical Spectroscopy)
Rockwood et al. (237,239) showed that the heated capillary could be used to induce thermal decomposition, and Allen and Vestal (238) described an ESI source based solely on thermal desolvation with no gas counterflow. Modern variations on the thermal desolvation theme include the MicroMass “pepper pot” and JEOL “desolvating plate” designs. These designs provide an indirect path through a desolvating chamber to eliminate the problem of neutral solvent droplets that can enter the vacuum interface in “line-of-sight” designs.
A logical extension of the nanospray technique is to combine the nanospray ESI source with microchip technology. Several researchers have combined lab-on-a-chip technology (such as microscale capillary electrophoresis) with microfabricated ESI sources (283–285). Microchip technology combines the benefits of parallel analysis, small size, low sample consumption, and a potentially low manufacturing cost. All of these characteristics are attractive for high throughput analysis. The technology requires a small sample volume and a fast and sensitive analysis method.
The collision-induced dissociation process (CID) is a low energy process, with typical collision energies in the 10–100 eV range (laboratory frame). Because low energy CID is sensitive to operating conditions, it has been difficult to achieve reproducible product ion spectra between different models and manufacturers. However, tandem mass spectra obtained with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer tend to be more informative and less susceptible to rearrangements and artifacts than the tandem mass spectra obtained with ion trap mass spectrometers.