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By Donald R. Griffin

"Animal Minds tackles a query that's either attention-grabbing and critical. the overpowering physique of facts that Donald Griffin has assembled places past moderate doubt the case for spotting that many non-human animals . . . are in a position to even more refined pondering than many scientists were ready to believe."--Peter Singer, writer of Animal Liberation.

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One of the most thorough and significant studies of searching images was carried out by Harvey Croze (1970). On a sandy beach where carrion crows were gathering mussels at low tide he laid out a row of empty half mussel shells, convex side up, and beside each shell he placed a small piece of beef. After five hours the crows had taken all the pieces. The next day Croze laid out twenty-five mussel shells and under each one he hid a similar piece of beef. When the crows returned they turned over twenty-three of the shells and ate the meat.

Pyke marked bumblebees so that individuals could be distinguished, and recorded their behavior when visiting clusters of flowers that had not been visited by other insects. No one flower held enough to fill a bumblebee's stomach, so that several had to be visited before she flew off to her nest. The flower closest to the ground, or the next to lowest, was almost always visited first, and the bumblebee then moved upward, usually selecting the closest flower she had not already visited. Out of 482 observations, the same flower was visited twice on only five occasions.

Locating food may entail searching for the odors that signal its availability, following gradients in the concentration of such odors, or simply moving upwind when they are detected. In other cases where insects use vision to locate food sources, as when bees and other insects that feed on pollen and nectar search for flowers, they are so small and move so rapidly that it is very difficult to determine just what searching movements they 30 Chlljlter Two employ. But I suspect that when cognitive ethnologists become sufficiently disinhibited from the mindset that views all insects as genetically programmed clockwork, they will devise effective methods to monitor how insects go about searching for food.

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