By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Animal Learning and Cognition
San D i e g o : Aca d e m i c Press. Durlach, P. J. (1989). Learning and performance in Pavlovian conditioning: Are failures of contiguity failures of learning or performance? In S. B . Klein & R. R. ), Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory (pp. 1 9 - 5 9 ) . Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Gallistel, C . R. (1990). The organization of learning. C a m b r i d g e , M A : M I T Press. , Brett, L. , & Rusiniak, K. W. (1989). Limits o f D a r w i n i a n conditioning.
L. (1979). Spatial contiguity facilitates Pavlovian secondo r d e r conditioning. JoMrMii/ of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 1 5 2 161. Rescorla, R. Α . , & Furrow, D . R. (1977). Stimulus similarity as a determinant of Pavlovian conditioning. JoMrnd/ of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 2 0 3 - 2 1 5 . Rescorla, R. Α . , & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement.
This unblocking effect follows readily enough from Equation (3); an in crease in the U S will give a positive value to (λ - ΣΥ) by increasing the value of λ, thus allowing the CSs to gain strength. But Dickinson, Hall, and Mackintosh (1976) have shown that unblocking can be produced not only by increases in U S magnitude but also by reducing the U S for the c o m p o u n d stage. It will be evident that Equation (3) cannot predict excitatory conditioning to Β in these circumstances. N o w the basis of the attentional account of the standard blocking effect is that the effectiveness of the added stimulus (B) will decline substantially on the first c o m p o u n d conditioning trial as the occurrence of the U S is fully predicted by the pretrained s t i m u lus, A.