Download Analytical methods for coal and coal products, Volume 1 by Clarence Karr PDF

By Clarence Karr

Show description

Read Online or Download Analytical methods for coal and coal products, Volume 1 PDF

Best chemical books

Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 9

It's mostly authorized that the new development in molecular and mobile biology don't have been attainable with out an figuring out of the mechanisms and signaling pathways of verbal exchange contained in the mobilephone and among numerous cells of the animal organism. actually an analogous development happened within the box of chemical conversation among person organisms of vertebrate species, and this quantity is aimed toward providing the present cutting-edge in this topic.

Chemical Lectures of H.T. Scheffer

Torbern Bergman was once one of many maximum chemists of the 18th century. He edited this number of lectures in chemistry through H. T. Scheffer and released it in 1775. It used to be most likely the 1st booklet designed for use as a textbook for college periods in chemistry. Bergman provided the 1st of his successively better Tables of non-obligatory points of interest during this publication, a desk of the chemical components which was once one of many earliest makes an attempt to offer all of the chemical parts and their homes in one desk.

Spouted Beds

E-book through Mathur, Kishan B. , Epstein, Norman

Extra resources for Analytical methods for coal and coal products, Volume 1

Sample text

In the method of cokestrength prediction developed by Schapiro et al. (1961) such a procedure is in fact followed. However, Koch (1970) and others have observed that it has yet to be proved that different vitrinites of the same reflectance from mixed frequency distributions have the same technological behav­ ior. " The higher reflecting pseudo vitrinite (Fig. lb ) appears to be equivalent in part to telocollinite and to vitrinite A of Brown et al. (1964). Vitrinites A and B are, respectively, the higher reflecting vitri­ nite which occurs in thicker vitrain bands, and the lower reflecting vitrinite of layers of mixed macerals; they normally have reflectance distributions which overlap, as do those of reactive vitrinite and pseudovitrinite (Koch, 1970).

The microscope-photometer system described in Sections V,A and VI,A is calibrated against a standard before reflectance measurement is made. Reflectance measurement of coal is usually performed on vitrinite because vitrinite is the most abundant maceral in coal and occurs in relatively large particles, thereby enabling relatively facile measure­ ment. 5% from brown coal to anthracite; thus reflectance of vitrinite is more reliable in characterizing the rank of a coal. Reflectance measurement can also be performed on exinite and inertinite, which are usually low in concentration and small in grain size.

Substituting these values into Eq. (9), one obtains Ting's 3P maximum reflectance, which is equal to maximum reflectance Rmax. The correction factors k lr k2, and k3 are empirically obtained. They must be determined for each individual microscope-photometer sys- 1. 09 tem. It has also been found that the correction factors may vary slightly from time to time due to slight changes in the diaphragm opening, the position of the polarizer, and other mechanical deviations. Thus, they should be recalibrated every time standardization is made.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.57 of 5 – based on 41 votes