By Guglielmo Cinque
One of many world's top syntacticians provides proof for finding Adverb words within the specifiers of specified sensible projections inside of a unique and good articulated idea of the clause. during this conception, either adverbs and heads, which encode the practical notions of the clause, are ordered in a inflexible series. Cinques state of the art suggestion means that the constitution of average language sentences is way richer than formerly assumed.
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Extra info for Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
MAI Gianni ti farebbe del male! 'Never (focus movement) G. ' When possible, wh-movement is apparently allowed to subvert the relative order between two AdvPs. So, for example, although gia 'already' must precede manner AdvPs (see Tratta gia male il suo assistente 'He is already treating his assistant badly' versus *Tratta male gia il suo assistente 'He is badly already treating his assistant'), it can follow a manner AdvP if this has been wh-moved (Quanto male tratta gia il suo assistente? '). 46 The wh-moved AdvP also continues to satisfy the subcategorization requirements of the predicate (the preceding trattare and dress in (71a)).
Note the systematic contrasts displayed: How carefully has John worded the letter? versus (86b); How easily does this bag open up? versus (87b);* How cleverly has John been answering their questions stupidly? ) The same conclusion, of course, holds for the "high" position of the adverb in (83b) and (85b) (compare *John carefully has been wording the letter and *John has carefully been wording the letter). This means that there are three positions for the independent "base generation" of the same adverb, which appear to correspond to three different interpretations (even if the difference is obscured in certain contexts, as happens with the preverbal and VP-final positions in (85a) and (83a)).
40 ADVERBS AND FUNCTIONAL HEADS buxing 'unfortunately' > xianran 'evidently' (184) a. buxing tamen xianran dui ni wuhui hen shen. (H)106 unfortunately they evidently to you misunderstanding very deep 'Unfortunately they evidently have a deep misunderstanding of you. b. *xianran tamen buxing dui ni wuhui hen shen. xianran 'evidently' > xianzai 'now' (185) a. xianran xianzai ni yinggai qu le. (C) evidently now you must go PERF b. xianzai xianran ni yinggai qu le. xianzai 'now' > yexu 'perhaps' (186) a.