By Stephen L. Harp
An international background of Rubber is helping readers comprehend and achieve new insights into the social and cultural contexts of world creation and intake, from the 19th century to at the present time, during the attention-grabbing tale of 1 commodity.
Divides the insurance into issues of race, migration, and hard work; gender on plantations and in factories; call for and daily intake; international Wars and nationalism; and resistance and independence
Highlights the interrelatedness of our international lengthy ahead of the age of globalization and the worldwide social inequalities that persist today
Discusses key thoughts of the 19th and 20th centuries, together with imperialism, industrialization, racism, and inequality, throughout the lens of rubber
offers an enticing and available narrative for all degrees that's jam-packed with archival learn, illustrations, and maps
Acknowledgments ix Timeline xi international Rubber and Tire businesses xvii creation: Why Rubber? 1 international Connections eight 1 Race, Migration, and exertions 10 Wild Rubber and Early eleven Wild Rubber and Empire 14 Plantations growth: Rationality and potency 17 Plantation Hierarchies 21 Race and within the usa and Europe 29 2 girls and Gender on Plantations and in Factories forty Gendering the Jungle and the Plantation forty two Asian girls on Plantations forty four ecu ladies and Racism forty eight The Colonizing lady 50 Gendered creation within the usa and Europe fifty two Rubber and intercourse in Indochine fifty six three call for and daily intake sixty one daily intake on Southeast Asian Plantations sixty two category and intake in North the USA and Europe sixty four Race and intake in Europe and North the USA sixty eight Gender and intake in Europe and North the United States seventy one Gendering copy seventy seven four global Wars, Nationalism, and Imperialism eighty three international battle I eighty four See the United States First on solid Roads 86 Flying for the kingdom 88 limiting Rubber within the Wake of warfare ninety American Assertions: Herbert Hoover and US alternate ninety one Firestone and pals ninety four Firestone in Liberia ninety six Germany: Colonies and chemical compounds ninety nine international battle II and the USA Scramble for Rubber 102 Nazi Racism and Buna at Auschwitz a hundred and five Imperialism and Nationalism within the Wake of worldwide struggle II 107 five Resistance and Independence 111 Plantations and Resistance 112 worldwide monetary predicament and Plantation exertions 118 luck of the Smallholders one hundred twenty Plantations less than the japanese 124 Independence and Decolonization 126 United Rubber staff 131 end: Forgetting and Remembering Rubber 137 advised Readings 142 Index 157
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Extra resources for A World History of Rubber: Empire, Industry, and the Everyday
On days off, companies extended lines of credit to workers as the latter gambled; indebtedness bound them to the estate, so that when their contracts came up for renewal, they had little choice but to re‐engage. Gambling thus helped to save estates the cost of training new laborers. Discipline was tight. m. m. (workdays were generally shorter by the 1930s). At the morning assembly, overseers took attendance and formed the day’s work groups. Trees were tapped early in the morning, when the latex flowed best; gathering and processing were done later.
18 Obviously, orders and insults were the most important of the expressions, not to mention apparently oft‐needed words to describe a laborer in danger of soon dying. Perhaps the most telling insult, accusing a man of color of being a “woman,” allowed the speaker to assert both racial and gender hierarchies at the same time, putting both groups in their presumed places. There is of course no little irony in the fact that those who did most of the actual physical labor on the plantation were the ones consistently labeled as lazy.
Managers could be quite brutal with assistants, seasoned assistants with new assistants, assistants with overseers, and especially overseers with laborers. Pay scales reflected one’s place on the totem pole. Managers lived the dream of European plantation staffs, in that they earned enough in salaries and bonuses to retire to an upper‐ middle‐class lifestyle in Europe after their stint in the colonies. 13 Laborers often ended their contracts owing more than when they arrived, which of course served as a strong incentive to re‐up.