Download A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard PDF

By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.  

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7 1-93; G. ;and F. Giunta, "Sicilia e Tunisia nei secoli XIV e XV," in Giunta, Mediotvo nuditerraneo, pp. 137-190. , pp. 53- uS. For a description of African cities, see MacG. 'Afrique," Journal asiatigue, ser. 3, III (r84z), 160 If. r8 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 1l tantamount to open denunciation of Fa~d suzerainty over Tunisia. The mosque of Kairawan was restored to Sunnite Islam and the name of the 'Abblisid caliph al-Qa'im replaced that of the Fatimid in the Friday prayer. To punish this disloyalty, the Fatimid caliph al-Mustan~ir persuaded the wild beduin tribes of the Banu-Hilal, Banii-Sulaim, and others to invade Tunisia in 1052.

4•4· Ch. 23 The conquest of Berber North Africa by the Arabs in the seventh century had aroused a desperate resistance, and the spread of Islam, which came to the mass of the rural population in the form of Kharijite sectarianism based on the principle of religious equality, only widened the gap between them and their new rulers, the Sunnite nobility (juml). Yet under the 'Abbasid caliphs at Baghdad, Tunisia, soon separated from western Barbary, flourished as it never had since the great days of the Roman empire.

Along with the fields, orchards, and hamlets, all the unfortified cities fell to the new wave of Arabs. Kairawan, one of the holy cities of Islam, survived because it was fortified at the last moment. But life became increasingly difficult and, after a few years, the Zirids moved their capital to the sea-fortress of Mahdia. The caravan trade, once the glory of Tunisia, was completely ruined. One after another the cities broke away from the Zirids and set up their own dynasties, Arab or Berber. Mahdia alone was all that survived of the once strong state.

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